In Focus This Week
Vote by Mail Planning Calculator
New tool helps officials plan for increased mail voting
The 2020 primary election cycle has seen unprecedented increases in mail ballots. A recent Gallup Poll shows that 64% of Americans across both major parties favor allowing voting by mail this November. As election officials plan for an increase in mail voting, they’ll need to consider costs, staffing, automation, and even secured ballot-counting facilities along the way.
The Election Official Operations Toolkit by the National Vote at Home Institute (NVAHI) with funding support from the Democracy Fund features a Vote by Mail Planning Calculator to facilitate those preparations. This user-friendly Excel spreadsheet takes as its inspiration the polling place resource planning tools built by Aaron Strauss, Mark Pelzarsky, Stephen Graves, and Rong Yuan. Like those tools, it allows election officials to input data and simulate multiple scenarios to improve resource allocation.
The Voting by Mail Planning Calculator estimates the number of voters who choose mail ballots under a variety of scenarios and uses that information to model the likely costs and resource needs associated with supporting those mail voters. A user guide and step by step demo videos accompany it as well to make sure users can take full advantage of the capabilities. The calculator can help election officials:
- Prepare for potential variations in mail ballot requests
- Make decisions about automation and equipment
- Plan staffing throughout the election cycle
- Plan for voter education and outreach; and
- Budget for new or different expenses due to voting by mail
For jurisdictions thinking about buying equipment to automate parts of the VBM process, preparing to outsource components of this work, or organizing staffing plans, the calculator can help to compare automated versus manual, in-house versus contracted and simulate staffing needs throughout the election cycle.
It can’t do everything, though: no currently-available model can accurately predict how many voters will choose to cast their ballots by mail this November. The scenarios included in the calculator support planning for a range of potential outcomes, rather than being used to “lock-in” a specific plan. For example, many voters have chosen mail ballots under current public health guidance, though if public health provisions wane for the November election, many of these same voters may prefer the familiarity of in-person voting. Should public health concerns heighten, the record rates of mail ballot use we’ve seen will likely hold or increase in coordination.
Contingency planning is critical in running elections, even in years with fewer surprises than 2020 has offered so far. The Election Official Operations Toolkit from NVAHI can simplify planning and support election officials as they navigate new challenges and serve voters.
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Election News This Week
Plans for November: Several states and the District solidified their plans for the November General Election this week. In the District of Columbia, the DC Board of Elections confirmed that it would be mailing ballots to all registered voters. The city will also have 40 vote centers for early and day of voting and drop boxes will be placed citywide. In Iowa, Secretary of State Paul Pate announced his intentions to once again send an absentee ballot application to all registered voters. “I want Iowa voters and poll workers to be safe during this pandemic while we conduct a clean, fair and secure election. After consulting with all 99 county auditors, I believe the best way to accomplish that goal is by mailing an absentee ballot request form to every active registered voter in the state,” Pate said in a statement, noting that in-person voting will still be available. In Alabama, Secretary of State John Merrill announced that the pandemic is an acceptable excuse to request an absentee ballot for the general election. In Maryland, Gov. Larry Hogan stood firm on his plans to open every polling place for the November General election even though there were protests about his decision and the state Board of Elections said it would need an additional $20 million to conduct the election. In South Carolina, Election Commission Executive Director Marci Andino sent a letter to S.C. Senate President Harvey Peeler and S.C. House Speaker Jay Lucas she has serious concerns about the state’s ability to conduct what’s expected to be a busy presidential election under current rules. Among her concerns were that the absentee-by-mail voting process “will be overwhelmed and overrun” as social distancing at polling places will be either difficult or impossible, poll managers will be hard to recruit, wait times will rise and more people will seek curbside voting to avoid long lines. Officials in Grand Forks, North Dakota voted to hold the November General Election by mail with only one in-person voting site. North Carolina Board of Elections Director Karen Brinson Bell used her emergency powers to announce that she was requiring counties to provide at least one early voting site per 20,000 voters, that early voting sites must be open on weekends and that poll workers will be required to wear masks, voters will not.
Drop Boxes: It seems that drop boxes are the new 2020 election controversy du jour. In Connecticut, officials from the secretary of state’s office were forced to reach out to the mayor of Wallingford after he said last week that he plans to keep the two drop boxes inside Town Hall, citing security and vandalism concerns. “Our office has grave concerns about your unwillingness to protect the health and safety of your voters by providing them with a safe and trusted method of contactless delivery of their absentee ballots,” Deputy Secretary of the State Scott Bates said via letter Monday. Also in Connecticut, the town of Vernon has refused to accept the drop boxes from state. According to The Patch, Vernon Town Manager Michael Purcaro said the town instead wants to use a drop box connected to a window at the Vernon Town Clerk’s office to for a “safe, secure, easily accessible and convenient” method of filing ballots. “What we’re doing is offering a safer and healthier way to collect ballots. I have a concern over an unmonitored drop box being touched by who knows how many people while unsupervised and not necessarily cleaned after each transaction. I also question the security of a drop box at the curb rather than one attached to town hall. A monitored ballot submission is consistent with the constitution. After each time it us used, it will be cleaned and wiped down for health reasons.” The secretary of state’s office has also reached out to town officials in Vernon. During testimony before the U.S. Senate Committee on Rules and Administration, Tennessee Secretary of State Tre Hargett said that he is opposed to ballot drop boxes for security reasons. “Frankly, it’s an anti-coercion methodology,” Hargett responded. “If you look at it, if someone knows you’ve got an absentee ballot and they can say, ‘Hey, I’ll be glad to take that for you and drop that off for you,’ they can ask you what you filled that ballot out or they cannot turn it in at all for you.”
COVID-19: Poll workers who served in the recent runoff elections in both Alabama and Texas have been diagnosed with COVID-19. In Alabama, Piedmont city leaders informed people, via Facebook, that a poll worker who worked on runoff election day tested positive for COVID-19 and has been hospitalized. City leaders say their legal team advised them to notify anyone who voted at the court location last week. They also said all of the poll workers wore masks on election day. In Texas, at least three election workers who manned a polling site in McLennan County have been diagnosed with COVID-19. According to the Waco Tribune, One of the workers who is hospitalized estimated that from 10 percent to 15 percent of voters who cast ballots at the Robinson Community Center did not wear masks into the polling site.
New NASS Officers: New Mexico Secretary of State Maggie Toulouse Oliver has been elected to lead the National Association of Secretaries of State through July 2021. “I am grateful to lead the nation’s oldest nonpartisan association for public officials during this unprecedented time. With the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic and the historic 2020 general election on the horizon, now more than ever Secretaries of State are crucial to securing and protecting our democracy,” said Toulouse Oliver. “I look forward to successfully leading the organization and thank my colleagues for their support.” Also elected at the virtual 2020 NASS Virtual Summer Conference are the following executive board members: Immediate Past President: Hon. Paul Pate, Iowa; President-elect: Kyle Ardoin, Louisiana; Treasurer: Tahesha Way, New Jersey; Secretary: Steve Simon, Minnesota; Eastern Region Vice-President: Nellie Gorbea, Rhode Island; Southern Region Vice-President: John Merrill, Alabama; Midwestern Region Vice-President: Scott Schwab, Kansas; Western Region Vice-President: Katie Hobbs, Arizona; Member-at-Large (NPA Section): Connie Lawson, Indiana; and Member-at-Large (ACR Section): Jim Condos, Vermont.
Personnel News: Aaron G. Sheasley is the new Butler County, Pennsylvania elections bureau director. Anthony Blasi is the new Woolwich, Maine town clerk. Jeanette Tait has been appointed the new chairperson of the Luzerne County, Pennsylvania board of elections.
In Memoriam: Rep. John Lewis, a civil rights leader who preached nonviolence while enduring beatings and jailings during seminal front-line confrontations of the 1960s and later spent more than three decades in Congress defending the crucial gains he had helped achieve for people of color, has died. He was 80. According to The Washington Post, while Lewis was not a policy maven as a lawmaker, he served the role of conscience of the Democratic caucus on many matters. His reputation as keeper of the 1960s flame defined his career in Congress. In 2012, when Rep. Paul C. Broun (R-Ga.) proposed eliminating funding for one aspect of the Voting Rights Act, Lewis denounced the move as “shameful.” The amendment died. Lewis helped form and later led the Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee (SNCC). Passage of the Voting Rights Act, which provided incisors for the 15th Amendment 95 years after its enactment, is the Lewis saga’s richest chapter, what he called “the highlight of my involvement in the movement.” On March 7, 1965, what became known as Bloody Sunday, Lewis and Hosea Williams lead 600 people to the Edmund Pettus Bridge on Selma’s outskirts. Ordered to disperse, the procession held its ground. The troopers charged. Network cameras filmed police in gas masks brutalizing unarmed men, women and children, many dressed for church. Millions that night saw police using clubs and tear gas chasing terrified civilians. Mr. Lewis, his skull fractured, went to the hospital along with 77 others. “I remember how vivid the sounds were as the troopers rushed toward us,” he wrote in his memoir. “The clunk of the troopers’ heavy boots, the whoops of rebel yells from the white onlookers, the clip-clop of horses’ hoofs hitting the hard asphalt, the voice of a woman shouting, ‘Get ’em!’ ” The events of Bloody Sunday lead to the Voting Rights Act which President Lyndon Johnson signed on August 6, 1965. When Johnson signed the bill Lewis viewed it as “the end of a very long road.” In 2010 President Barack Obama awarded Lewis the Presidential Medal of Freedom. “Do not get lost is a sea of despair. Be hopeful, be optimistic. Our struggle of a day, a week, a month or a year, it is the struggle of a lifetime. Never, ever be afraid to make some noise and get in good trouble, necessary trouble.”
Research and Report Summaries
The Election Infrastructure Subsector’s Government Coordinating Council and Sector Coordinating Council’s joint COVID-19 working group released another guidance document in its series on COVID-19 mitigation measures this week. The document, Innovative Practices and New Solutions, outlines considerations for election officials regarding the use of voting “super centers,” ticketing or reservation processes, drive-through voting, and other innovative or new in-person voting practices. Previous guidance documents in the series focused on ballot drop boxes, voter outreach for increased mail voting, electronic ballot delivery and marking, requesting mail ballots, inbound mail ballot processing, managing an increase in outbound mail ballots, mail ballot signature verification, modifying the scale of in-person voting, finding voting locations and poll workers; health and safety at the polling place, and safeguarding staff and the work environment.
The Congressional Research Service (CRS) released two reports this month on election administration topics.
- COVID-19 and Other Election Emergencies: Frequently Asked Questions and Recent Policy Developments addresses frequently asked questions and policy developments surroundingelection emergencies and the COVID-19 pandemic. The report summarizes recent emergencies impacting elections, enacted and proposed federal legislation, and policy considerations for Congress.
- Supreme Court Clarifies Rules for Electoral College: States May Restrict Faithless Electors summarizes the July 6, 2020 Supreme Court decisions in Chiafalo v. Washington and Colorado Department of State v. Baca that states may punish or replace presidential electors who refuse to cast their ballots for the candidate chosen by the voters of their state. The report explains the Court’s decisions and reviews their implications for Congress.
The University of New Mexico Center for the Study of Voting, Elections and Democracy released a report on the 2018 midterm elections in New Mexico this week. The report, 2018 New Mexico Election Administration, Security, and Election Reform Report, assesses characteristics of voters and the 2018 campaign, voter experiences, and voter concerns about election security. The report examines voter experiences and attitudes related to wait times, ballot length, poll worker interactions, voter identification, same-day registration, automatic voter registration, cyber threats, and fraudulent election activity.
The Heritage Foundation released a report on absentee and mail-in voting last week. The report, Four Stolen Elections: The Vulnerabilities of Absentee and Mail-In Ballots, examines three local elections in California, Indiana, and Florida, as well as a congressional election in North Carolina, where election results were overturned due to election fraud related to absentee and mail-in ballots.
The Brookings Institution and Harvard Ash Center‘s Working Group on Universal Voting released a report on universal civic duty voting this week. The report, Lift Every Voice: The Urgency of Universal Civic Duty Voting, discusses the merits of higher turnout, lessons from Australia and other countries, and the constitutionality of civic duty voting. The report argues for adopting universal civic duty voting in the U.S. and offers policy and implementation recommendations.
Election Security Updates
Director of the Cybersecurity and Infrastructure Security Agency (CISA) Christopher Krebs said a Brookings Institution event earlier this month that the 2020 election “will be the most secure election in modern history,” but continued to advocate for backup paper ballots to ensure an accurate count. According to MeriTalk, Krebs said the 2016 election acted as a wake-up call to the American people and government as election interference “demonstrated the potentiality to undermine democracy at large.” Because of the looming threat, CISA and other agencies across the federal government have worked to up the cybersecurity and resilience posture of election infrastructure. “Compared to where things were in 2016,” Krebs explained, “we’re not seeing that level of coordinated, determined cyber activity from adversaries.” CISA has worked to develop a “vibrant election security community of practice” with state and local and private sector partnerships to bring together the pockets of election security expertise, he said. Through these partnerships, the agency has helped create “comprehensive visibility across the election infrastructure sector,” according to Krebs, and placed election intrusion detection sensors in every state.
Colorado: Secretary of State Jena Griswold announced on this week the formation of a new election security unit devoted to cybersecurity. Griswold said the five-member Rapid Response Election Security Cyber Unit will “focus on bridging the gap between cyber experts and county election administrators and on strategies to combat cyber-attacks and disinformation.” The leader of the unit will be Nathan Blumenthal, a former official for counterterrorism and threat prevention with the U.S. Department of Homeland Security.
Federal Legislation: According to The Hill, House Majority Leader Steny Hoyer (D-Md.) said that Democrats are planning to unveil voting rights legislation in the coming days and bring it up for a vote as a way to honor the legacy of the late civil rights icon Rep. John Lewis (D-Ga.). Hoyer said that Democratic leaders and relevant committee chairs, led by Majority Whip James Clyburn (D-S.C.), are crafting the bill to supplement legislation that the House passed in December to restore key parts of the landmark Voting Rights Act of 1965 that prohibited racial discrimination in voting practices.
U.S. Sen. Michael Bennet (D-Colorado) has introduced The National Emergency Student Vote Act that would require colleges and universities to send nonpartisan voting information to their students to help them register and request absentee ballots for the November election. The requirement to send information would apply for students who are not located on campus during the pandemic. Institutions may also email students instead. If an institution is requiring students to remain off campus, it must request absentee ballot applications from the state and distribute them to students. The college or university should also make an effort to inform students about deadlines and voting requirements in their state.
Connecticut: A 27-page draft of legislation to expand mail-in voting for the November election was the focus of a public hearing Tuesday by state lawmakers who will begin debate on the bill later in the week. The bill would allow local election officials to begin counting paper ballots in city and town halls early on the morning of Election Day, to address the expected surge of absentee ballots during the coronavirus pandemic. “This bill brings us in line with the rest of the county,” said Secretary of the State Denise Merrill, at the online hearing.
Idaho: County clerks are requesting a special session of the Legislature to make changes to election laws in advance of the November general election, to deal with coronavirus concerns. Ada County Clerk Phil McGrane presented several proposed bills to the Legislature’s new State Affairs Working Group, to adjust procedures regarding polling places, processing times for absentee ballots and more. Among the concerns are that huge numbers of Idaho voters already have requested absentee ballots for November, meaning county clerks will need to be ready to process them; and counties are experiencing problems lining up poll workers, many of whom are older and fall into high-risk groups for contracting COVID-19, and polling places, with many regular locations no longer able or willing to accommodate voting due to virus concerns.
Indiana: State Democrats are calling for a special legislative session in order to address several COVID-19-related issues as well as push for racial justice. On the elections front, they want to address absentee voting. “And as Indiana now sees rising daily cases of COVID-19, we are almost assured that the pandemic will be nowhere close to being over in November,” Senate Democratic Leader Tim Lanane, D-Anderson, said. “Hoosiers deserve to have safe options to exercise their constitutional right to vote while staying safe during this pandemic. These issues demand immediate solutions and immediate legislation.” They also called for allowing the collection of absentee ballots up to 6 p.m. on Election Day.
New Hampshire: Gov. Chris Sununu has signed a bill into law that creates a new box check when requesting an absentee ballot that specifies the coronavirus as the reason the person wants to vote absentee. The new law will also allow voters to use one applications to receive absentee ballots for both the Sept. 8 primary and the Nov. 3 general election. The law will also allow town officials to begin processing absentee ballots several days before the election.
New York: The Legislatures is set to take up several pieces of election-related legislation in the coming weeks. Items up for consideration include acceptable postmarks on absentee ballots, ensure absentee ballots remain available in November for voters seeking to avoid Covid-19, a bill for voters to fix absentee ballot errors, like missing signatures and another would set up automatic voter registration starting in 2023 for anyone who interacts with a handful of public agencies.
Rhode Island: The House has approved a bill that will send a mail ballot application to every voter ahead of the September primary and the November general election. The bill will only apply to elections in 2020. The bill would also require that local boards of canvassers operate drop boxes where voters can drop off their ballot until 8 p.m. on the days of the elections. The ballots would then be processed centrally at the Secretary of State’s office. The Senate refused to take up the legislation. The House also approved a bill that would allow people to cast “emergency ballots” in regular voting machines at city or town halls up to 20 days ahead of an election instead of the “labor-intensive’ process of emergency mail ballots. The Senate approved that bill and sent it to the governor’s desk for signature.
Alabama: A three-judge panel of the 11th U.S. Circuit Court of Appeals vote 2 to 1 to uphold a lower court ruling that rejected claims that an Alabama law which requires voters to show a government-issued photo ID at the polls is racially discriminatory. Rebuffing opponents who argued the law violated the Constitution and the Voting Rights Act, the court ruled that “no reasonable factfinder could find that Alabama’s voter ID law is unconstitutionally discriminatory” based on the evidence. But Judge Darrin P. Gayles, a district judge who heard the case with the circuit judges, dissented in an opinion that noted Alabama’s “deep and troubled history of racial discrimination” and voter suppression. While some absentee fraud occurs, Gayle wrote, in-person voting fraud is ”virtually non-existent.”
Alaska: A coalition of advocacy groups and individual voters have sued Alaska Lieutenant Gov. Kevin Meyer and the Division of Elections over the decision to mail absentee ballot applications only to voters over the age of 65. The lawsuit argues that the state’s actions violate the 26th Amendment. The suit explains not only that the selective mailing is unconstitutional, but that is irrational because the state’s mailing leaves out many Alaskans who would be prime candidates to vote absentee including individuals at high risk for COVID-19.
Arkansas: Pulaski County Circuit Judge Wendell Griffen said this week that he’ll side with Secretary of State John Thurston and throw out a pandemic-related lawsuit over the state’s absentee-voting practices unless the plaintiffs can show him proof — within a week — that election authorities have done something wrong. The judge outlined his position on the month-old litigation in a seven-page ruling that states that the three plaintiffs have not shown any evidence that they “have suffered or face imminent danger of suffering any injury protected by law” related to the actions of the secretary of state.
Connecticut: The chief of the state Supreme Court ruled this week that four candidates running for Congress chose the wrong venue to challenge the state’s plan to mail absentee ballots to all eligible voters. According to Courthouse News Service, while the candidates styled their complaint as an original jurisdiction proceeding in the state Supreme Court, counsel for the state emphasized in a motion to dismiss that the law permitting such challenges “applies only to elections, not primaries.” Chief Justice Richard Robinson tossed the case Monday afternoon shortly after holding remote arguments on the motion. In a 1-page order, the chief wrote that an original proceeding under state law 9-323 “is not a proper vehicle to challenge a ruling of an election official with respect to a primary.” “Instead, the plaintiffs’ challenge should have been brought in Superior Court,” Robinson added.
Florida: A divided Supreme Court declined to stop a Florida law about felon voting rights, a decision that could leave tens of thousands of people without clarity about whether they are eligible to vote in the state’s Aug. 18 primary election. “This Court’s inaction continues a trend of condoning disfranchisement,” Justice Sonia Sotomayor wrote in a dissent, which was joined by Justices Ruth Bader Ginsburg and Elena Kagan. The Supreme Court declined a request from voter rights groups to undo the 11th Circuit’s decision, and the majority gave no explanation for doing so. Sotomayor took seven pages to describe why she disagreed, writing that the 11th Circuit had added “confusion” and “voter chill” that the Supreme Court’s precedents say the justices should avoid in elections. Sotomayor pointed out that the state still needed to screen 85,000 registrations, which the district court found would take officials six years, and tens of thousands of Floridians had already registered to vote when the law was blocked. They will remain on the voter rolls. The case remains at the 11th Circuit, which will hear arguments on the same day as Florida’s primary election.
Priorities USA, Dream Defenders and other plaintiffs have reached a settlement with the state over Florida’s vote by mail procedures. Plaintiffs had been seeking to expand the state’s vote-by-mail process, arguing that the COVID-19 pandemic will result in a record number of Floridians casting ballots from home to reduce chances of being infected with the highly contagious coronavirus. Among other things, the plaintiffs asked to extend a deadline for mail-in ballots to be returned. They also wanted free postage for the ballots and challenged a provision in Florida law restricting paid workers from collecting mail-in ballots. The agreement would require Secretary of State Laurel Lee to “educate” and “encourage” county supervisors of elections about a variety of vote-by-mail procedures that were at the heart of the lawsuit. For example, the state’s top elections official would be required to educate supervisors about pre-paid postage for mail-in ballots. The settlement also would encourage local elections officials “to maximize the use of drop boxes for vote-by-mail ballots” and to inform voters about the availability of the ballot drop-off sites.
Also in Florida, a judge has rejected the City of Miami’s request for an injunction ordering the county and Supervisor of Elections to provide more early voting sites. A lawyer for the city told the court there is a “voting desert” in the middle of Miami, particularly in Hispanic neighborhoods, that infringed on voters’ ability to cast a ballot, especially during the pandemic.
Maine: Several blind and visually impaired voters have filed a federal lawsuit over their inability to independently mark paper absentee ballots in Maine. The four plaintiffs are alleging that the lack of accommodations violates the federal Americans With Disabilities Act and the Maine Human Rights Act. They are asking for a remedy before the November 3 general election. Kristin Aiello is an attorney with Disability Rights Maine who filed the lawsuit against the Maine Secretary of State’s Office and several city clerks on behalf of the four Maine residents. Aiello says their desire to vote absentee has been exacerbated by the new coronavirus pandemic. Three of them have underlying medical conditions that put them at high risk if they contract COVID-19. And while Gov. Janet Mills issued an emergency order that expanded the absentee voting program to encourage all registered voters to safely vote from home via absentee ballot, Aiello says her clients cannot do that.
Michigan: The ACLU of Michigan has filed a complaint against the Flint City Clerk’s office seeking to account for absentee ballot requests submitted to the clerk and getting the ballots out to voters in time for the upcoming Aug. 4 and Nov. 3 elections. The complaint, filed in Genesee County Circuit Court Thursday, demands that the Clerk’s office, closed by the pandemic since March 17, be reopened to the public and that information about the status of absentee ballot applications and ballot mailings be made public. The complaint requests “expedited consideration” because of the tight timeline leading up to the elections. It also demands that absentee ballots be mailed out within 24 hours of receipt of the ballot application. The complaint states that the City Clerk has failed to comply with “basic legal duties” and aims to protect the plaintiffs from “being denied their constitutional absentee voting rights and from potential disenfranchisement.”
Also in Michigan, a Court of Appeals panel sided with the state Legislature this week, upholding a rule that would require voters without a driver’s license or personal identification to vote a challenged ballot. The case was a consolidation of two similar arguments brought by voting rights group Priorities USA and ballot committee Promote the Vote, which promoted the voter-approved voting rights initiative known as Proposal 3 in 2018. The case had been dismissed June 24 by the state Court of Claims before it was appealed to the Court of Appeals. “…the Legislature’s definition of proof of residency is a reasonable means to prevent voter fraud,” Judge Patrick Meter wrote in a 2-1 decision.
The League of Women Voters is appealing a decision that requires absentee ballots be received by local clerks by Election Day to the Michigan Supreme Court. The League says voters should have their ballots count if they are put in the mail by Election Day. “The unconstitutional barriers to absentee voting in Michigan, must be corrected immediately,” said Christina Schlitt, president of the League of Women Voters of Michigan in a statement. Schlitt said they want the state’s highest court to rule by September 4, “so voters, candidates and election officials know the rules well in advance of the November general election. This will ensure voting is accessible and convenient for every registered voter in Michigan.”
New York: Two candidates and more than a dozen voters filed a lawsuit in federal court accusing Governor Andrew Cuomo and the New York State Board of Elections of creating an “election snafu” during the pandemic that stands to disenfranchise thousands of voters. The plaintiffs argue the problem stems from one of the executive orders signed by Cuomo to expand access to absentee ballots due to the Covid-19 public health emergency. It required Boards of Elections statewide to send voters a postage-paid absentee ballot envelope – a change from the previous system where voters applied their own postage. In the complaint, plaintiffs argue that this deluge of absentee ballots in the primary were handled inconsistently in part because of the State Board of Elections’ reliance on the United States Postal Service and that those ballots will be counted, or not counted with, “lightning-like randomness.”
Belén Colón, 81, filed the federal lawsuit earlier this month seeking payment for damages she says she sustained on primary day, where she alleges a series of events unfolded that resulted in her being unable to vote for her candidate and left feeling discriminated against for being Hispanic. The lawsuit alleges that Colón and three other Puerto Rican senior citizens had to be shuttled by her daughter to the Baden Street Settlement polling site after the Board of Elections consolidated polling sites According to the Democrat and Chronicle, the odds of the lawsuit being successful could be long; past legal precedents show that it is difficult to prove any monetary damages if one’s vote is not counted and there appears to be no evidence that the problems were so widespread as to affect the election outcome.
North Carolina: This week, the North Carolina NAACP asked a Wake County judge to block the use of touch-screen voting machines. The NAACP argues that new, touch screen voting machines risk exposing voters to COVID-19. It also said the ExpressVote machines are “insecure, unreliable, and unverifiable” and threaten “the integrity of North Carolina’s elections.” This week’s request for an injunction said the machines create “unique and substantial risks to the lives and health of voters” because each screen will be touched frequently.
Tennessee: U.S. District Judge Eli Richardson in Nashville said he will not block three Tennessee laws dealing with absentee voting for the Aug. 6 primary election amid the coronavirus pandemic, saying the groups that sought the action should have requested it earlier. Richardson issued the order on the laws that bar first-time voters from voting absentee unless they show an ID at the local election office, make the unsolicited distribution of requests for applications for absentee ballots a misdemeanor for people who are not election workers and spell out a signature verification process for those voters. The groups sought a requirement that voters get the chance to fix signature matching issues with their ballots.mRichardson wrote that he will still consider whether to block the laws for the November election.
Texas: Mi Familia Vota, the Texas NAACP and a group of voters have filed suit claiming the state’s current polling place procedures — including rules for early voting, the likelihood of long lines and Gov. Greg Abbott’s decision to not require voters to wear masks — place an unconstitutional burden on voters while the virus remains in circulation. That burden will be particularly high for Black and Latino voters whose communities have been disproportionately affected by the virus, the lawsuit argues. Abbott and Texas Secretary of State Ruth Hughs are named as defendants, but the suit targets some decisions that are ultimately up to local officials. The long list of changes the plaintiffs are seeking includes a month of early voting, an across-the-board mask mandate for anyone at a polling place and a suspension of rules that limit who can vote curbside without entering a polling place. The plaintiffs also want to overturn a relatively new statewide election law that ended the long-established practice of setting up temporary or mobile early voting sites that could be moved around during the early voting period to reach as many voters as possible near where they live, work or go to school. They are asking the court to allow counties a temporary reprieve from that 2019 law, which is the target of a separate lawsuit filed last year.
West Virginia: 23rd Judicial Circuit Judge Debra McLaughlin has again ordered Harpers Ferry town leaders to count the provisional ballots of four voters in the disputed 2019 municipal election. “While the (W.Va.)Supreme Court affirmed this Court’s ruling that the four votes in question should be opened and counted; the (W.Va.) Supreme Court did reverse this Court’s November 6, 2019 ruling regarding the question of standing of (town council candidate) Nancy Singleton Case,” McLaughlin’s new order states. The state Supreme Court’s decision in the case was filed June 15 and remanded the case back to Jefferson County Circuit Court. McLaughlin had previously concluded that the four provisional ballots should be included in the vote tallies because the voters’ names were left out of the poll book because of a technical error involving the West Virginia Division of Motor Vehicles. Citing the high court’s decision in the case, McLaughlin’s order on Tuesday reverses the decision of the Harpers Ferry Contest Tribunal Order declaring election results, and orders that the Harpers Ferry Town Council count the provisional ballots of the four voters.
Michigan: Grand Rapids-based mail service provider Kent Communications, Inc. (KCI) announced this week that it has worked with local election officials to create a product called TrackMIBallot. The product used a service from the United States Postal Service, called Informed Visibility, to track each piece of ballot mail as it goes through the postal system. TrackMIBallot will track ballots as they are sent out to voters and also as they are sent back to the election office. So far, the City of Walker, the City of Lansing, Grand Rapids Township and Cannon Township have signed on to use TrackMIBallot for the upcoming election. The City of Walker was one of the very first Municipalities to sign on. “As City Clerk for the City of Walker in Kent County Michigan, I strive to be on the forefront of technology, and I am excited to assist KCI in rolling out TrackMIBallot. This tool will be a great benefit to voters by giving them the opportunity to track their ballot to its destination,” said City of Walker clerk Sarah Bydalek.
Social Media: Facebook added an information label to a post from President Donald Trump on Tuesday in which he claimed mail-in voting would lead to “the most CORRUPT ELECTION in our Nation’s History,” directing users to a nonpartisan government website with facts about absentee and early voting. The Facebook label read, “Get official voting info on how to vote in the 2020 US Election at usa.gov.”
Opinions This Week
National Opinions: Election security, II | Supreme Court, II | U.S. Postal Service | Voter fraud, II, III | Voting rights, II, III, IV, V | Vote by mail, II | Poll workers | General election, II | Election protection | Voting access | Online voting | Older voters
Alaska: Ballot access
Arkansas: Absentee voting
Connecticut: Vote by mail
Georgia: Chatham County
Michigan: Voting roadblocks
New Mexico: Federal troops
North Dakota: Approval voting
Pennsylvania: Vote by mail
Rhode Island: Voting safety
Washington: Walla Walla County
West Virginia: Voting safety
Making Democracy Work: Information About a Career in Election Administration: Join us for an informational webinar with alumni, faculty, and staff in the Humphrey School of Public Affairs Certificate in Election Administration (CEA) program. Learn about the curriculum, time commitment, career paths in elections, joining a virtual community of colleagues, and much more. Ask questions and get the answers you need. The Humphrey School of Public Affairs offers the first of its kind nationwide online graduate- and undergraduate-level program to prepare professionals in election administration. The CEA is designed with maximum flexibility for those experienced individuals already managing state and local election offices, as well as those seeking to become part of the next generation of creative and committed leaders. When: July 27. Where: Online
Election Security: Security for Whom?: Good elections are secure elections—but what does that mean? Does it mean that election processes help eligible people vote, while thwarting anyone else? Does it mean accurate vote tabulation—and being able to prove that the counting was done right? Does it mean keeping voters safe at the polls? Does it mean giving the voting public a sense of security in a time of disinformation and misinformation? Yes, yes, yes and yes. Learn from national elections experts about cybersecurity, election validation and audits, healthy polling places and communicating about security. Where: Online: When: August 13, 12pm Central
D3P National Training Tour: The Defending Digital Democracy Project (D3P) is launching a national training tour effort for local election officials as they prepare for the 2020 election. Given the many changes of the past months, this tour will be conducted digitally and is designed to give officials the best of D3P live training sessions in a new format. In addition to supporting local election officials through customized training, the tour may also host some special sessions for state election officials. Local jurisdictions can sign up for a block of virtual training sessions from June to August 2020, with the timing, content, and outputs customizable based on election officials’ schedules and priority needs. D3P’s work is committed to supporting officials in protecting the elections process. Just as you continue your work to serve the American people, we continue our work to serve you. This is a free, virtual resource that will involve discussion groups, live table top simulations, and state-specific content. Key training topics include operations management, crisis communications, disinformation, and Covid-19 support. When: Now through August 28. Where: Online.
EAC Online Cybersecurity Training
The U.S. Election Assistance Commission (EAC) announced the immediate availability of self-paced, cybersecurity training specific to election officials at no cost to all State, Local, Tribal, and Territorial election offices. The training consists of both video and written materials separated into three modules, Cybersecurity 101, 201, and 301.
The training was developed by the Center for Tech and Civic Life (CTCL) and is delivered through their online platform. The training is designed specifically for election administrators and provides foundational knowledge on cybersecurity terminology, best practices in election offices, practical application, and communication.
“Providing high-quality cybersecurity training and resources to election officials has been a priority of the EAC,” remarked EAC Chairman Ben Hovland. “The EAC is excited to make this election-focused training available now as part of our broader efforts to assist election officials and improve their security posture during 2020 and beyond.”
As part of its mandate under the Help America Vote Act (HAVA), the EAC is tasked with maintaining a clearinghouse of election administration resources, best practices, training, checklists, and other information useful to election officials responsible for conducting U.S elections and securing and maintaining the critical infrastructure that supports them. The EAC is currently engaged in an agency-wide effort to update, collect, and produce new materials in support of the EAC mission.
“The orientation and training of our election workers on ways to combat cybersecurity threats is the backbone of our defenses against overseas or domestic bad actors. This partnership with the Center for Tech and Civic Life allows us to offer quality training and resources in direct support of local election officials and their critical mission,” said EAC Vice Chair Donald Palmer.
This election-focused cybersecurity training is available immediately through the EAC website. The courses are available at no cost through May 2021.
Job Postings This Week
electionlineWeekly publishes election administration job postings each week as a free service to our readers. To have your job listed in the newsletter, please send a copy of the job description, including a web link to firstname.lastname@example.org. Job postings must be received by 5pm on Wednesday in order to appear in the Thursday newsletter. Listings will run for three weeks or till the deadline listed in the posting.
Business Enablement Project Manager, Hart InterCivic— The Business Enablement Project Manager manages projects that further the advancement of business for the organization. These projects include the development of RFP responses, management of strategic regulatory activities, execution of market research activities, and internal projects to support the improvement of business processes to support the Proposals and Certification Teams. The Business Enablement Project Manager must be able to function effectively on all levels of corporate structure in order to identify opportunities, analyze business needs, and identify and solve problems that present barriers to market entry. The Business Enablement Project Manager must be able to exercise sound judgment, interact with internal and external stakeholders, and complete projects professionally in high-pressure situations. Application: For the complete job listing and to apply, click here.
Communications Associate, Center for Tech and Civic Life — When you think about elections, you might think about popular candidates, “I voted” stickers, and all sorts of paperwork and deadlines. But behind the scenes are thousands of election administrators in state and local governments who are working hard to make sure ballots are counted and voices are heard. To serve every community and make democracy work, election administrators need 21st-century tools and training. You can help them get it! As the CTCL Government Services Communications Associate, you will grow and engage our network of election administrators (what we call ELECTricity) and connect them with resources like CTCL training courses and ElectionTools.org. You’ll work with the Government Services team and report to the Impact and Learning Manager. Application: For the complete job listing and to apply, click here.
Communications Specialist, King County, Washington— This position reports to the Chief of Staff for the Department of Elections and will be responsible for writing communications to inform voters, stakeholders and others about elections in King County, including press releases, talking points and other materials. A large part of this role will be serving as the lead and providing technical expertise for King County Election’s active social media presence, designing advertising strategy and content, as well as responding to media and other inquiries. This position will support on-site tours, media visits, and other communication-related events. Salary: $78,992.16 – $100,127.46. Deadline: July 31. Application: For the complete job listing and to apply, click here.
Director of Registration and Elections, Mercer County, Pennsylvania: Manages and administers the County voter registration and election processes, in accordance with the County Code, the policies of the Board of Commissioners and/or Board of Elections and Federal, State and Local laws and regulations by performing the following duties personally or through subordinate managers. Directly supervises the Clerical Assistants, Election Officials and any temporary employees in the Voter Registration and Election Office. Carries out supervisory responsibilities in accordance with the County’s policies and applicable laws. Responsibilities include training employees; planning, assigning and directing work; appraising performance; addressing complaints and resolving problems. Manages the general operations of registering voters and coordinating elections in the County in accordance with the Federal, State and Local laws and regulations. Coordinates current and long-range voter registration and election objectives, plans, and policies, subject to approval by the Board of Commissioners and/or Board of Elections. Dispenses voter registration and election advice, guidance, direction consistent with established laws and regulations. Plans, directs and supervises the work of department personnel. Recruits and train all staff including poll precinct workers. Supervises the proper posting and accurate filing of registration cards and the preparation of street lists. Supervises the preparation of and delivery of voting machines and requisitions and distributes necessary voting supplies. Registers voters and cancels the right of electors whose voting privileges have been revoked. Directs the drawing for the position of candidates and the unofficial and official vote counts. Designs ballots for elections. Oversees the analysis, maintenance and communication of voting and election records required by law or governing bodies, or other departments in the organization. Establishes and maintains an effective system of communication throughout the County related to voter registration and election. Prepares necessary legal and public notices. Oversees the selection and coordination of election polling places consistent with State and Federal laws. Answers telephone inquiries regarding problems and gives information to callers or routes call to appropriate State or County department or agency. Prepares and oversees department budgeting, financial management, purchasing, grant management, department accountability and related activities for the County. Salary Range: $37,822 $53,470. Deadline: July 30. Application: For the complete job listing and to apply, click here.
Elections Manager, Shawnee County, Kansas— Under general supervision, this Classified position is a part of the Elections Office management team. Performs critical administrative work for elections related to voter services (voter registration, advance mail ballots, early voting, federal service/UOCAVA voting, mobile polling, etc.). Oversees voter records management systems and other related work. Performs other duties as assigned. This position is supervised by the Election Manager – Voter Services. 30% Assisting the Election Manager, 20% Election Systems Software, 20% Voter Registration & List Maintenance, 5% Voter Ballot Services, 10% Process Improvement & Documentation, and 5% Security & Customer Service. Salary: $18.49 to $20.41 hourly. Deadline: July 31. Application: For the complete job listing and to apply, click here.
Elections Specialist I-III, Douglas County, Colorado — This position is focused on routine customer service and general office/clerical support including data entry, communications, and processing mail. This is a support role capable of performing a variety of tasks, with problem solving abilities, managing multiple competing responsibilities and prioritizing to maintain a continuous flow of election office operations. This is a visible and crucial position requiring exceptional computer, customer service, and communication skills. This position may require technical work in a lead role capable of performing a variety of complex tasks, with solving problem abilities, managing multiple competing tasks and prioritizing to maintain a continuous flow of operations and temporary support. This position may be classified as an Elections Specialist I, II, or III dependent upon the skills of the candidate and the department’s business needs. Salary: $34,614 – 54,050. Application: For the complete job listing and to apply, click here.
Election Supervisor, City of Richmond — The City of Richmond, Virginia, Office of the General Registrar is seeking to fill the position of Election Supervisor. The purpose of the position is to provide management of and administrative assistance for all aspects of absentee voting to the Office of the General Registrar. This includes military and overseas voting, in-person voting before Election Day, through the mail absentee voting and post-election absentee ballot processing. The incumbent must be able to multi-task and demonstrate sound, independent judgement. The incumbent must have the ability to prioritize organize and evaluate work; determine appropriate action and adjust workloads according to deadlines and other program requirements. Experience in dealing effectively with a broad range of people in a business environment, with members of the community and with the public is essential. The incumbent in this position will be required to work within adhere to, interpret, apply and explain federal and state regulations, policies and procedures and respond in writing and verbally. This is a full time permanent position with benefits. Salary range $42,80 to $64,320 annually. Deadline: July 31. Application: For the complete job listing and to apply, click here.
Elections Supervisor, Dallas County, Texas— Assists management by planning, organizing, delegating and overseeing the daily operations of one or more areas of responsibility associated with the election process. Oversees the election program area to ensure staffing coverage is adequate, and productivity standards are met and are effective develops and implements goals and objectives, performance measures and techniques to evaluate programmatic activities reviews correspondence and reports from local, state and or federal agencies analyzes statistical data and prepares and maintains related reports. Researches and maintains comprehensive knowledge and understanding of applicable laws, policies and procedures to effectively communicate with staff, and acts as liaison and departmental representative to elected officials, political representatives, candidates, judges, contracting customers, vendors, general public, and or other county, state and federal representatives to resolve problems, answer questions, provide assistance and modify policies procedures. Hires and trains supervisory and support staff, evaluates performance and initiates disciplinary actions coordinates and monitors scheduling, productivity and workloads. Assists in budget preparation and maintains related data and reports. Performs other duties as assigned. Salary Range: $49,765.92 – $62,100.24. Application: For the complete job listing and to apply, click here.
HAVA Administrator, Nevada Secretary of State— The Nevada secretary of state’s office is seeking a HAVA Administrator. The incumbent in this position will manage the Help America Vote Act (HAVA) grant and in this capacity will work with members of the State Elections Division, county registrar of voters, and other elections related positions in the federal, state, and county governments to manage the application of the HAVA grant and support the conduct of state and federal elections. This position will be a key member of the State elections team and will be primarily responsible for the analysis and interpretation of federal and state elections law. This position will supervise up to six other elections-related employees. State employee Benefits – Medical, dental, vision care, life and disability insurance programs are available; eleven paid holidays per year; three weeks of annual leave; three weeks of sick leave; state defined benefit retirement plan; tax-sheltered deferred compensation plan available. State employees do not contribute to Social Security; however, a small Medicare deduction is required. Salary: $66,628.08 – $100,161.36. The Secretary of State’s Office is located in downtown Carson City, near beautiful Lake Tahoe in Northern Nevada, which offers a destination location to live, work and play. Application: For the complete job listing and to apply, click here.
IT Security Engineer, Dominion Voting Systems— We are looking for an IT Security Engineer to join our IT team in Denver, Colorado! We are looking for a security-minded individual who can perform both day-to-day technical management and maintenance of IT security programs and who can also strategically assess and enhance the overall IT security enterprise-wide. This role covers a broad scope of responsibilities as some days you may be evaluating new security solutions and attending security briefings, while other days you will be managing our existing IT security toolsets and reviewing threat and log data to identify risk and mitigate vulnerabilities. You must be a self-starter, who collaborates well with others and can explain IT security best practices to anyone from the end-users to executive team members. You will also work for hand and hand with colleagues within the IT department and work with our vendors and external threat organizations to understand and mitigate risks. Application: For the complete job listing and to apply, click here.
Policy Associate, National Vote at Home Institute— Under the general direction of the National Policy Director, the Policy Associate is responsible for supporting the policy goals of the National Vote at Home Institute (NVAHI), including the design and implementation of mail ballot policies and procedures nationwide. The Policy Associate is responsible for internal data capture and interpretation in a shifting policy landscape and will also contribute heavily to data analysis and strategy decisions that the data informs. As an entrepreneurial and growing nonprofit, NVAHI seeks an energetic, flexible, and creative team member to help us grow our impact. The compensation range for this position is$45,000-$60,000/year depending on experience. This position is remote and requires a personal computer, phone, and access to the internet. Applications: For those interested in applying, please send a resume, cover letter, and references to National Policy Director Audrey Kline at email@example.com with subject line “Policy Associate”
Project Associate, Center for Tech and Civic Life — When you think about elections, you might think about popular candidates, “I voted” stickers, and all sorts of paperwork and deadlines. But behind the scenes are thousands of election administrators in state and local governments who are working hard to make sure ballots are counted and voices are heard. To serve every community and make democracy work, election administrators need practical, research-based approaches that can improve their operations. These include things like voter registration, resource allocation, and language access. As the CTCL Projects Associate, you will learn about the complex challenges that voters face and help election administrators address those challenges. You’ll work with the Government Services team and report to the Senior Project Manager. Application: For the complete job listing and to apply, click here.
Project Coordinator, Center for Election Innovation and Research— CEIR seeks a qualified, full-time Project Coordinator to join our team. The Project Coordinator will report to the Program Director and will be responsible for monitoring project progress, promoting communication, and ensuring key milestones are met. The Project Coordinator will partner with CEIR’s Research manager and other project staff to create project action plans and coordinate resources. This is an excellent opportunity for an experienced and highly motivated individual who wants to join a quickly growing nonprofit that seeks to make a substantial, positive, nonpartisan impact on elections and American democracy. CEIR’s office is in Washington, DC, but due to the COVID-19 pandemic, all CEIR staff are working remotely for the foreseeable future. Therefore, while we prefer applicants who live in the Washington, DC Metro Area, we will also consider qualified applicants who live elsewhere. Application: For the complete job listing and to apply, click here.
Project Manager, Hart InterCivic— Project Managers at Hart InterCivic are highly motivated “self-starters” who are enthusiastic about providing exceptional customer service. Working with other members of the Professional Services and Operations teams, the Project Manager directs activity, solves problems, and develops lasting and strong relationships with our customers. Hart InterCivic’s unique and industry known culture of innovation, transparency, and customer-centric focus creates an environment where team members will continually grow and be challenged to develop their careers. Application: For the complete job listing and to apply, click here.
Senior Data Fellow, Voting Information Project— The Voting Information Project (VIP) coordinates with state election offices to publish nationally standardized information about where and how to vote—data that powers everything from Google’s polling place search, to our text and email reminders to TurboVote users. VIP’s dataset has served millions (and hundreds of millions) of voters since 2008. You will: Work with Democracy Works technical staff to write, run, and debug Python scripts to parse data; Assist with standardizing & sanitizing datasets; Perform quality assurance checks on the information to ensure accuracy and completeness of the data; Research and respond to user-reported errors; and Write and update technical documentation so that other members of the team can recreate processes. Application: For the complete listing and to apply, click here.
Senior Deputy Board Clerk/Elections Assistant, Mono County, California— Under general supervision, to coordinate and perform a variety of complex, specialized support work for the County Board of Supervisors and the maintenance of official Board records; to serve as back-up, recording meetings and developing minutes for the County Board of Supervisors and the Assessment Appeals Board; to perform a variety of administrative and staff support work for County elections; to provide assistance and information to the public regarding the functions of County Boards and Commissions and County Elections; to assist other County staff with the understanding of assigned program and department/work unit procedures and requirements; to perform a variety of advanced technical and office support work such as web maintenance; process assessment; oversee management of process; research old records and laws; and to do related work as required. Salary: $60,626 annually. Application: For the complete job listing and to apply, click here.
State Audit Expansion Specialist, Verified Voting— A critical component of election security is the ability to determine whether the computers that counted the votes counted them correctly. To do that, jurisdictions must have a system that incorporates paper ballots that are retained for recounts and audits. After the election, the paper ballots must be checked against the computer-reported results via a rigorous statistically sound audit, called a risk-limiting audit. Verified Voting is working with election officials to implement risk-limiting audits in as many jurisdictions as possible for the 2020 elections. The State Audit Expansion Specialist will report directly to the Director of Science and Technology Policy and will be primarily responsible for the education and outreach required to build trust with election officials in order to implement statewide RLAs of swing states. The State Audit Expansion Specialist will also support the design, development, implementation and reporting of audit pilots in a variety of jurisdictions, and will be able to contribute to the formulation of state and local audit policy. Salary Range $65,000-$75,000. Application: Please submit a resume and a short cover letter regarding your interest in the position and salary requirements to: firstname.lastname@example.org. commensurate with experience.
Systems Specialist, Denver, Colorado— The Operations, Integrated Solutions team assist our Tier 1 Operations teams in technical support while taking on operational projects that are extremely technical in nature, or scoped beyond the geographical boundaries of any one Tier 1 Operations team. The Operations, Integrated Solutions consists of 6 teams with specific focuses including Documentation & Training, Printer & Dealer Support, Advanced Field Support, Data Integration, Software Integration and Hardware Integration. This role will be responsible for implementing and ongoing support of multiple web applications reporting within Operations ISG. Dominion Voting has a family of web applications including imagecast remote (ICR), internet voting, ballot auditing & review, and election night reporting sites and in this position, you will manage the implementation and ongoing support of these applications, interfacing with both internal resources and customers. This position will require extensive customer facing training and support and process recommendations in addition to the web technology elements. Application: For the complete job listing and to apply, click here.
Technology Associate, Center for Tech and Civic Life— When you think about elections, you might think about popular candidates, “I voted” stickers, and all sorts of paperwork and deadlines. But behind the scenes are thousands of election administrators in state and local governments who are working hard to make sure ballots are counted and voices are heard. To serve every community and make democracy work, election administrators need 21st-century tools and training. You can help them get it! As the CTCL Government Services Technology Associate, you will implement streamlined, digital learning experiences that advance the tech and communication skills of America’s election administrators. You’ll work with the Government Services team and report to the Program Manager. Application: For the complete job listing and to apply, click here
Vice President of Election Operations, Center for Internet Security— Reporting to the Executive Vice President for Operations and Security Services (OSS), the Vice President of Election Operations will oversee all elections-related efforts within CIS, most importantly the Elections Infrastructure Information Sharing and Analysis Center (EI-ISAC) and related elections community support sponsored by the U.S. Cybersecurity and Infrastructure Security Agency (CISA). This position will also manage election-related projects and activities that are funded by third parties or self-funded by CIS. The Vice President of Election Operations will lead an organization comprised of the CIS staff working on election-related efforts and will be responsible for outreach to U.S. state, local, tribal, and territorial election offices as well as private sector companies, researchers, and nonprofit organizations involved in supporting elections. Application: For the complete job listing and to apply, click here.
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